API Reference Source

Transactions

Sequelize supports two ways of using transactions:

  1. Managed, One which will automatically commit or rollback the transaction based on the result of a promise chain and, (if CLS enabled) pass the transaction to all calls within the callback
  2. Unmanaged, One which leaves committing, rolling back and passing the transaction to the user

The key difference is that the managed transaction uses a callback that expects a promise to be returned to it while the unmanaged transaction returns a promise.

Managed transaction (auto-callback)

Managed transactions handle committing or rolling back the transaction automatically. You start a managed transaction by passing a callback to sequelize.transaction.

Notice how the callback passed to transaction returns a promise chain, and does not explicitly call t.commit() nor t.rollback(). If all promises in the returned chain are resolved successfully the transaction is committed. If one or several of the promises are rejected, the transaction is rolled back.

return sequelize.transaction(t => {
  // chain all your queries here. make sure you return them.
  return User.create({
    firstName: 'Abraham',
    lastName: 'Lincoln'
  }, {transaction: t}).then(user => {
    return user.setShooter({
      firstName: 'John',
      lastName: 'Boothe'
    }, {transaction: t});
  });

}).then(result => {
  // Transaction has been committed
  // result is whatever the result of the promise chain returned to the transaction callback
}).catch(err => {
  // Transaction has been rolled back
  // err is whatever rejected the promise chain returned to the transaction callback
});

Throw errors to rollback

When using the managed transaction you should never commit or rollback the transaction manually. If all queries are successful, but you still want to rollback the transaction (for example because of a validation failure) you should throw an error to break and reject the chain:

return sequelize.transaction(t => {
  return User.create({
    firstName: 'Abraham',
    lastName: 'Lincoln'
  }, {transaction: t}).then(user => {
    // Woops, the query was successful but we still want to roll back!
    throw new Error();
  });
});

Automatically pass transactions to all queries

In the examples above, the transaction is still manually passed, by passing { transaction: t } as the second argument. To automatically pass the transaction to all queries you must install the cls-hooked (CLS) module and instantiate a namespace in your own code:

const cls = require('cls-hooked');
const namespace = cls.createNamespace('my-very-own-namespace');

To enable CLS you must tell sequelize which namespace to use by using a static method of the sequelize constructor:

const Sequelize = require('sequelize');
Sequelize.useCLS(namespace);

new Sequelize(....);

Notice, that the useCLS() method is on the constructor, not on an instance of sequelize. This means that all instances will share the same namespace, and that CLS is all-or-nothing - you cannot enable it only for some instances.

CLS works like a thread-local storage for callbacks. What this means in practice is that different callback chains can access local variables by using the CLS namespace. When CLS is enabled sequelize will set the transaction property on the namespace when a new transaction is created. Since variables set within a callback chain are private to that chain several concurrent transactions can exist at the same time:

sequelize.transaction((t1) => {
  namespace.get('transaction') === t1; // true
});

sequelize.transaction((t2) => {
  namespace.get('transaction') === t2; // true
});

In most case you won't need to access namespace.get('transaction') directly, since all queries will automatically look for a transaction on the namespace:

sequelize.transaction((t1) => {
  // With CLS enabled, the user will be created inside the transaction
  return User.create({ name: 'Alice' });
});

Concurrent/Partial transactions

You can have concurrent transactions within a sequence of queries or have some of them excluded from any transactions. Use the {transaction: } option to control which transaction a query belong to:

Warning: SQLite does not support more than one transaction at the same time.

Without CLS enabled

sequelize.transaction((t1) => {
  return sequelize.transaction((t2) => {
    // With CLS enable, queries here will by default use t2
    // Pass in the `transaction` option to define/alter the transaction they belong to.
    return Promise.all([
        User.create({ name: 'Bob' }, { transaction: null }),
        User.create({ name: 'Mallory' }, { transaction: t1 }),
        User.create({ name: 'John' }) // this would default to t2
    ]);
  });
});

Isolation levels

The possible isolations levels to use when starting a transaction:

Sequelize.Transaction.ISOLATION_LEVELS.READ_UNCOMMITTED // "READ UNCOMMITTED"
Sequelize.Transaction.ISOLATION_LEVELS.READ_COMMITTED // "READ COMMITTED"
Sequelize.Transaction.ISOLATION_LEVELS.REPEATABLE_READ  // "REPEATABLE READ"
Sequelize.Transaction.ISOLATION_LEVELS.SERIALIZABLE // "SERIALIZABLE"

By default, sequelize uses the isolation level of the database. If you want to use a different isolation level, pass in the desired level as the first argument:

return sequelize.transaction({
  isolationLevel: Sequelize.Transaction.ISOLATION_LEVELS.SERIALIZABLE
  }, (t) => {

  // your transactions

  });

The isolationLevel can either be set globally when initializing the Sequelize instance or locally for every transaction:

// globally
new Sequelize('db', 'user', 'pw', {
  isolationLevel: Sequelize.Transaction.ISOLATION_LEVELS.SERIALIZABLE
});

// locally
sequelize.transaction({
  isolationLevel: Sequelize.Transaction.ISOLATION_LEVELS.SERIALIZABLE
});

Note: The SET ISOLATION LEVEL queries are not logged in case of MSSQL as the specified isolationLevel is passed directly to tedious

Unmanaged transaction (then-callback)

Unmanaged transactions force you to manually rollback or commit the transaction. If you don't do that, the transaction will hang until it times out. To start an unmanaged transaction, call sequelize.transaction() without a callback (you can still pass an options object) and call then on the returned promise. Notice that commit() and rollback() returns a promise.

return sequelize.transaction().then(t => {
  return User.create({
    firstName: 'Bart',
    lastName: 'Simpson'
  }, {transaction: t}).then(user => {
    return user.addSibling({
      firstName: 'Lisa',
      lastName: 'Simpson'
    }, {transaction: t});
  }).then(() => {
    return t.commit();
  }).catch((err) => {
    return t.rollback();
  });
});

Usage with other sequelize methods

The transaction option goes with most other options, which are usually the first argument of a method. For methods that take values, like .create, .update(), etc. transaction should be passed to the option in the second argument. If unsure, refer to the API documentation for the method you are using to be sure of the signature.

After commit hook

A transaction object allows tracking if and when it is committed.

An afterCommit hook can be added to both managed and unmanaged transaction objects:

sequelize.transaction(t => {
  t.afterCommit((transaction) => {
    // Your logic
  });
});

sequelize.transaction().then(t => {
  t.afterCommit((transaction) => {
    // Your logic
  });

  return t.commit();
})

The function passed to afterCommit can optionally return a promise that will resolve before the promise chain that created the transaction resolves

afterCommit hooks are not raised if a transaction is rolled back

afterCommit hooks do not modify the return value of the transaction, unlike standard hooks

You can use the afterCommit hook in conjunction with model hooks to know when a instance is saved and available outside of a transaction

model.afterSave((instance, options) => {
  if (options.transaction) {
    // Save done within a transaction, wait until transaction is committed to
    // notify listeners the instance has been saved
    options.transaction.afterCommit(() => /* Notify */)
    return;
  }
  // Save done outside a transaction, safe for callers to fetch the updated model
  // Notify
})

Locks

Queries within a transaction can be performed with locks

return User.findAll({
  limit: 1,
  lock: true,
  transaction: t1
})

Queries within a transaction can skip locked rows

return User.findAll({
  limit: 1,
  lock: true,
  skipLocked: true,
  transaction: t2
})