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Version: v7 - alpha

Paranoid Models

Sequelize supports the concept of paranoid tables. A paranoid table is one that, when told to delete a record, will not truly delete it. Instead, it will record that the model is deleted by setting its "deleted at" column to the current timestamp.

This means that paranoid tables perform a soft-deletion of records, instead of a hard-deletion.

Defining a model as paranoid

To make a model paranoid, you must use the @DeletedAt decorator on an attribute. That attribute will then be used by Sequelize to record the deletion timestamp.

import { InferCreationAttributes, InferAttributes, Model } from '@sequelize/core';
import { DeletedAt } from '@sequelize/core/decorators-legacy';

class User extends Model<InferAttributes<User>, InferCreationAttributes<User>> {
declare deletedAt: Date | null;


When you call the destroy method, a soft-deletion will happen:

await Post.destroy({
where: {
id: 1
// UPDATE "posts" SET "deletedAt"=[timestamp] WHERE "deletedAt" IS NULL AND "id" = 1

If you really want a hard-deletion and your model is paranoid, you can force it using the force: true option:

await Post.destroy({
where: {
id: 1
force: true
// DELETE FROM "posts" WHERE "id" = 1

The above examples used the static destroy method as an example (Post.destroy), but everything works in the same way with the instance method:

const post = await Post.create({ title: 'test' });
console.log(post instanceof Post); // true
await post.destroy(); // Would just set the `deletedAt` flag
await post.destroy({ force: true }); // Would really delete the record


To restore soft-deleted records, you can use the restore method, which comes both in the static version as well as in the instance version:

// Example showing the instance `restore` method
// We create a post, soft-delete it and then restore it back
const post = await Post.create({ title: 'test' });
console.log(post instanceof Post); // true
await post.destroy();
await post.restore();

// Example showing the static `restore` method.
// Restoring every soft-deleted post with more than 100 likes
await Post.restore({
where: {
likes: {
[]: 100

Behavior with other queries

Every query performed by Sequelize will automatically ignore soft-deleted records (except raw queries, of course).

This means that, for example, the findAll method will not see the soft-deleted records, fetching only the ones that were not deleted.

Even if you simply call findByPk providing the primary key of a soft-deleted record, the result will be null as if that record didn't exist.

If you really want to let the query see the soft-deleted records, you can pass the paranoid: false option to the query method. For example:

await Post.findByPk(123); // This will return `null` if the record of id 123 is soft-deleted
await Post.findByPk(123, { paranoid: false }); // This will retrieve the record

await Post.findAll({
where: { foo: 'bar' }
}); // This will not retrieve soft-deleted records

await Post.findAll({
where: { foo: 'bar' },
paranoid: false
}); // This will also retrieve soft-deleted records

Eager-loading soft-deleted records


Eager-loading is described in depth in the SELECT Queries: In Depth guide.

If you want to eager load soft deleted records, you can do that by setting include.paranoid to false:

include: [{
association: 'projects',
paranoid: false,